Every day chemical and nuclear reactions on Earth convert potential energy into velocity or heat, the sum of all such reactions cause ground potential to fall and the electron mass to drift slowly upwards over time.

Isolated protons which have never undergone either chemical or nuclear reaction are fundamental and have constant mass energy (938,272,088.16 MeV, as such the protons mass can be used to reference subtle changes to ground potential over time.

Earth is composed of heavy elements (mainly iron) it's mass per nucleon is lower than that of an isolated proton, this is true because most of the elements had to go through numerous nuclear fusion reactions in order to to reach iron (Fe56), each of these reactions converted potential energy into gamma rays and heat, leaving the nucleus with less mass.

Einstein calculated this in his theory of General relativity and today we call this for gravitational redshift. It is typically expressed like this: \[1 + z = \frac{1}{\sqrt(1-\frac{2GM}{rc^2})}\] On Earth this gravitational redshift is still quite small, but the Earth is active and elements inside earth constantly fission, fuse and react which results in a very slow but steady decrease to its potential which in turn increases its redshift.

The increasing gap between Earths and the protons potential (currently about 8 MeV) can be used to calculate the mass energy of an electron by the following equation;

Where \(a\) is the electron potential, \(c\) is the proton potential, \(b\) is ground potential (observers potential).

The demonstration clock above is based on Ground Potential Theory (GPT), it takes the published mass of the electron over the last 21 years as input and outputs the value of ground potential in units of eV, updating once per second. The input is therefore \(\Delta a\) and represents the electrons apparent mass change over the last 21 years.

\[ \Delta a = \frac{(m_e 2019) - (m_e 1998))} { seconds } \]

\( \Delta a \) is inserted in Eq.1 to calculate the change in ground potential \( \Delta b \) per second. It then multiplies this by how many seconds since NIST* last published an update (2019) for the proton and electron masses and subtracts it from ground potential 2019.

! The units eV is understood as the average energy per charge e, by convention we can divide by e and simply express ground potential in units of volts.

* Values for Constants obtained from: physics.nist.gov

Fortunately this theory is going to be very easy to prove, scientists are developing better and better ways to measure the electron mass with ever increasing accuracy, their results are published by NIST every 4-5 years. The electron mass change predicted by GPT is large enough that it will be indisputable within a few years and I believe GPT will unravel the confusion.

I speculate that the birth of our Universe began with the fusion of two protons into deuterium (tiny bang), this reaction would have caused a potential drop of 465 keV. in the nucleus, this was followed for the formation of Helium 3, Helium 4 and so on up the periodic table. As more elements were formed the rate of potential fall slowed down. Ground potential today is at the same level as Fe56 which for obvious reasons is also the most stable element.

It is difficult to accurately estimate the age of the Universe based on the current rate of change, due to our relatively brief history of measuring the electron mass (21 years), but if we simply took the difference between the proton mass and ground potential (8 MeV) and divided it by the annual rate of change used in this clock (0.005 v), we estimate the age of the Universe to be around 1.6 Billion years, which I think most scientists agree is a bit low. My current best guess is that ground potential is falling at the rate of between 0.005 and 0.0005 volts per annum. This would agree better with a Universe that is 13 Billion years old.

Future publications by NIST will give us a much better accuracy on the drift of the electron (if any), so it will be exciting to follow this research going forward.

GPT theory has been developed by;

Steven Sesselmann © 2021

(Contact details via my RG profile)

Description | Potential eV |
---|---|

Proton mass 2019* | 938,272,088.16 |

Electron mass 2019* | 510,998.95404 |

Electron mass 1998* | 510,998.85186 |

Electron drift from 1998 to 2019 | 0.10218 |

Ground potential 2019 | 930,377,249.38 |

GP drift 1998 to 2019 | 1.053938 |

Seconds per annum | 315,569,952 |

GP drift per second | 0.000000000159038 |